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Submitted: 19 May 2018
Accepted: 02 Nov 2018
First published online: 23 Nov 2018
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Avicenna J Med Biochem. 2018;6(2):44-49.
doi: 10.15171/ajmb.2018.10
  Abstract View: 23
  PDF Download: 40

Research Article

Effects of Resistance, Endurance, and Concurrent Exercise on Oxidative Stress Markers and the Histological Changes of Intestine After Morphine Withdrawal in Rats

Iraj Salehi 1 ORCID logo, Ebrahim Zarrinkalam‎ 2, Fatemeh Mirzaei 3, Ebrahim Abbasi Oshaghi 1 * ORCID logo, Kamal Ranjbar 4, Sara Soleimani Asl 5

1 Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
2 Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Hamedan Branch, Hamedan, Iran
3 Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
4 Young Researchers and Elite Club, Hamedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Hamedan, Iran
5 Endometrium and Endometriosis Research Centre , Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
*Corresponding author: Ebrahim Abbasi Oshaghi, Tel +989198029847, Fax +988138380208, Email: 7abbasi@gmail.com, a.oshaghi@umsha.ac.ir Email: 7abbasi@gmail.com

Abstract

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of resistance, endurance, and concurrent exercise on oxidative stress markers and histological changes of the intestine after morphine withdrawal in rats.

Methods: A total of 30 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=6) including healthy control, withdrawal (rat received morphine for 21 days and 8 weeks of withdrawal period), withdrawal + endurance exercises, withdrawal + resistance exercises, and withdrawal + concurrent exercises. The rats practiced endurance, resistance, and concurrent exercises for 10 weeks. Then, their intestines were removed and used for biochemical and histological analysis. Next, several factors were measured such as total protein levels, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and total oxidant status (TOS). Finally, the morphological alteration of intestine was examined under the light microscope.

Results: Morphine withdrawal significantly increased the levels of MDA in the intestine of withdrawal rats compared to those of the control group while endurance, resistance, and concurrent exercise reduced the MDA levels in the intestine. In addition, morphine withdrawal led to a decrease in TAC and GSH levels in the intestine compared to control rats whereas endurance, resistance, and concurrent exercise noticeably increased TAC and GSH levels. Interestingly, the change in the concurrent group was more significant. Moreover, the levels of TOS demonstrated a significant increase in the addicted rat as compared to the control group. Conversely, endurance, resistance, and concurrent exercise significantly decreased TOS levels and the reduction was more significant in the concurrent group. Finally, the intestine of withdrawal rat was morphologically abnormal while it restored by the exercise.

Conclusion: Overall, endurance, resistance, and concurrent exercise significantly normalized oxidative stress and the morphological changes of the intestine in withdrawal rats.

Keywords: Morphine, Reduced glutathione, Rat, Oxidative stress, Intestine,
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