Long non-coding ribonucleic acids (lncRNAs) are the largest group of non-coding RNAs and supposedly have a broad spectrum of diverse functions in normal cellular processes. This study was carried out to review the biological functions of candidate lncRNAs (i.e., H19, MALAT-1, TUG1, UCA-1, MEG3, HOTAIR, CCAT2, AATBC, and the like) with aberrant expressions that play critical roles in bladder cancer (BC) initiation, progression, and metastasis. A formal narrative review was performed by searching the PubMed database for English articles using a combination of keywords such as “long non-coding RNA”, “lncRNA”, “cancer”, “bladder cancer”, “screening”, “prognosis”, “diagnosis”, and “response to therapy”. In addition, the existing literature was studied on biological function, aberrant expression, and the clinical applications of candidate lncRNAs in BC. By a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of lncRNAs, they can be used as biomarkers for tumor signatures in urologic malignancies, which can improve screening, prognosis, diagnosis, and the treatment of BC.