Background: Paraquat (PQ) is one of the most important herbicides used in agriculture.
Objectives: This study was conducted to compare the preventive effect of vitamin D (Vit D) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against kidney injury in rats versus the promotive effect of PQ.
Methods: In this study, rats were divided into six groups. The control group (group 1) received normal saline, Vit D group (group 2) received intraperitoneal (IP) injections of+Vit D (2 μg/kg), NAC group (group 3) received NAC (6.25 mg/kg, IP), PQ group (group 4) received PQ (5 mg/kg/d, IP), PQ+Vit D group (group 5) received PQ+Vit D (5 mg/kg/d+2 μg/kg/d, IP) and PQ+NAC group (group 6) received PQ+NAC (5 mg/kg/d+6.25 mg/kg/d, IP). The animals were treated for 7 consecutive days as a sub-chronic exposure. After the collection of urea and serum creatinine, biomarkers of oxidative stress and kidney histopathology were investigated.
Results: PQ increased lipid peroxidation (LPO), urea, and serum creatinine, but it significantly decreased total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and thiol groups. In the groups treated with Vit D and NAC, it was observed that LPO, urea, and creatinine significantly decrease compared with the PQ group, and TAC, thiol groups, and Vit D levels increased in kidney tissue.
Conclusion: The obtained findings revealed that both Vit D and NAC used as preventive compound were able to reduce oxidative stress and tissue damage caused by PQ toxicity in the kidney.