Submitted: 11 Aug 2022
Revision: 18 Sep 2022
Accepted: 20 Sep 2022
ePublished: 05 Nov 2022
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Avicenna J Med Biochem. 2023;11(1): 1-10.
doi: 10.34172/ajmb.2022.2381
  Abstract View: 363
  PDF Download: 173

Original Article

Attenuation of Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Into Adipocytes by Co-administration of Calcium and All-trans Retinoic Acid

Farjam Goudarzi 1 ORCID logo, Adel Mohammadalipour 2, Sheno Karimi 3, Iraj Khodadadi 4, Azin Shahmohammadi 5, Mohammad Taghi Goodarzi 6* ORCID logo

1 Regenerative Medicine Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
2 Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
3 Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
4 Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
5 Department of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Sciences, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
6 Department of Biochemistry, Islamic Azad University, Shahrood Branch, Shahrood, Iran
*Corresponding Author: Mohammad Taghi Goodarzi, Email: mtgoodarzi@yahoo.com


Background: Adipogenesis is affected by multiple factors, among which all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and Ca2+are considered important factors.

Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of calcium, ATRA, and their underlying molecular mechanisms, alone and in combination, on adipocyte differentiation.

Methods: Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAD-MSCs) were differentiated into adipocytes and simultaneously exposed to 0.5 μM ATRA or 2.5 mM calcium, or both in combination for 14 days.

Results: Higher intracellular Ca2+was observed in both Ca2+and Ca2+plus ATRA groups. Assessment of triglyceride content and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) activity indicated lower differentiation levels in all treatment groups than in the control group. Furthermore, the results demonstrated a higher expression of retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR-α) and lower expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2) and glucose transferase-4 (GLUT4) in the treatment groups as compared with the control group. It is noteworthy that Ca2+plus ATRA treatment caused more significant effects on gene expression levels (P<0.05).

Conclusion: In conclusion, combined treatment with Ca2+and ATRA has a more pronounced inhibitory effect on adipocyte differentiation, indicating their cumulative effect.

Please cite this article as follows: Goudarzi F, Mohammadalipour A, Karimi S, Khodadadi I, Shahmohammadi A, Goodarzi MT. Attenuation of differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into adipocytes by co-administration of calcium and all-trans retinoic acid. Avicenna J Med Biochem. 2023; 11(1):1-10. doi:10.34172/ajmb.2022.2381
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