Background: Daily consumption of fruits is recommended due to their positive impact on the control of glycemia, cholesterol and coronary heart disease. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the glycemic index and glycemic load (GL) of four local fruits grown in Benin, namely papaya, pineapple, watermelon and grafted mango, among apparently healthy young adult subjects.
Methods: This research work, being an interventional study of quasi-experimental category, involved 33 voluntary adult subjects (mean age: 23.4±1.9 years; mean body mass index: 21.38±1.89 kg/m2 ) distributed into 4 groups. The subjects of each group consumed the reference food (25 g of glucose or 50 g of white bread) twice a week with an interval of one week, and then a serving equivalent to 25 g of carbohydrates of each tested fruit in the morning after a 12-hour fasting on the evening. Plasma glucose was measured at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after food ingestion. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, SPSS, 26). The P < 0.05 was regarded as the significance level.
Results: The incremental area under the curve mean value in mmol.L-1.min-1 of pineapple (89.21±21.75) was higher (P <0.001) than those of mango (34.71±13.62), papaya (23.46±15.06) and watermelon (20.30±16.47). The mean glycemic index of mango (117.09±58.32) was significantly higher (P =0.007) than the ones of pineapple (52.97±29.87), papaya (46.77±45.77), and watermelon (41.04±34.06). The mean GL of mango (16.28±8.11) was significantly more elevated (P =0.001) than the ones of papaya (3.41±3.34), pineapple (6.36±3.58), and watermelon (2.54±2.11).
Conclusion: Watermelon, papaya and pineapple may therefore be recommended for safe consumption in accordance with dietary guidelines.