Submitted: 24 Jan 2022
Revision: 12 Mar 2022
Accepted: 16 Mar 2022
ePublished: 25 Jun 2022
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Avicenna J Med Biochem. 2022;10: 71-81.
doi: 10.34172/ajmb.2022.10
  Abstract View: 215
  PDF Download: 119

Review Article

Intolerance to Milk Lactose, Diagnostic Tests and Dietary Management: A Recent Update

Azra Shafi, Qayyum Husain* ORCID logo

1 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India
*Corresponding Author: Corresponding author: Qayyum Husain, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India Tel: +91-9897701792, Email: , Email: qayyumbiochem@gmail.com


Lactose intolerance is a common pathology that occurs due to the reduced activity of β-galactosidase leaving undigested lactose in the intestine. About 70% of the world population suffers from this condition. The gastro intestinal symptoms associated with this condition are diarrhoea, pain, nausea, bloating, flatulence, etc. It has been reported that these individuals are at a risk of developing several other pathologies like irritable bowel disease, osteoporosis, etc. Hence, proper diagnosis and treatment is essential for dealing with this condition. Various methods are used for providing an accurate diagnosis, such as hydrogen breath test (HBT), lactose intolerance test, genetic test, intestinal biopsy, etc. Depending on the type of intolerance, several methods are adopted for treating it, such as replacing enzyme, using exogenous enzymes, following lactose free diet, as well as consuming prebiotics and probiotics. Different methods are applied to synthesize lactose free dairy products to help lactose intolerant individuals suffering from important vitamins and minerals deprivation. Recently, plant-based milks are also used as a substitute for providing calcium and vitamins. The last few years have seen improvement in the quality and availability of lactose-free dairy products offering tempting foodstuffs to consumers. This narrative article aimed to review the existing science on lactose intolerance, along with its epidemiology, diagnosis, and clinical management.
Keywords: β-Galactosidase, Lactase, Lactose intolerance, Lactose maldigestion, Lactase non-persistence, Lactose-free products,

Please cite this article as follows: Shafi A, Husain Q. Intolerance to milk lactose, diagnostic tests and dietary management: a recent update. Avicenna J Med Biochem. 2022; 10(1):71-81. doi:10.34172/ajmb.2022.10
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